A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF “BILLIARDS AT NINE THIRTY”, A NOVEL WRITTEN BY THE GERMAN AUTHOR HEINRICH BÖLL AND TRANSLATED VERSIONS OF THE BOOK ACCORDING TO GIDEON TOURY’S TARGET-ORIENTED THEORY
The aim of this study is to make a contrastive analysis of a 1956 novel written by the Nobel-winning German Author Heinrich Böll and three translated versions by different translators. While analysing the literary works, the criteria such as preliminary norms, in other words, outer view, cover pages, inter-textual parts, etc. were taken into consideration primarily and then some translated sentences were picked up at random from the source text, which is the aim of the study, and their equivalences were found in the produced text. The relationship between these sentences with their equivalences were analysed within the frame of Gideon Tour’s target-oriented translation theory. When examining the translation norms, preliminary norms and operational norms and then the analysis of the literary text were covered. Upon our analysis according to Gideon Tour’s target-oriented translation theory, the translation strategies employed in three versions of translation were found to be the same; however, the one close to the original text is considered to be “adequate”, the one close to the target text is considered to be “acceptable”. Ultimately, it was seen that word-for-word translation, adaptation, interpreting, adaptation, deletion, naturalization and alteration strategies have been widely used. Consequently, all three translations being close to the source text, language and culture as well as to the target text, language and culture, they were considered to be both “adequate” and “acceptable”.
Translation, Target-Oriented Approach, Translation Strategies, Adequate, Acceptable