The conflict between Uyghurs of East Turkestan and People’s Republic of China continues to exist, which has a long history behind it and characterizes an example of ethnopolitical and asymmetric conflict. Despite Republic of East Turkestan having attempted independence twice in the second half of the 20th century, could not survive for a long time and was occupied by the People's Republic of China. In this study the roots and dimensions of Uyghur- China conflict have been explained by descriptive research method. In the theoretical part different approaches to the right of self- determination besides the terms of conflict, ethnopolitical conflict and asymmetric conflict have been discussed. The mentioned conflict arises not only from human rights violations, but also from the exclusion of Uyghurs from the political and economical decision- making processes. Uyghurs living in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region are not represented in proportion to their population in politics and important staff. The reasons, that generate conflict and nourish it, are absence of the right of self- determination of Uyghurs, exploitation of raw materials such as cotton, coal, gold and copper by China, increased migration of Han- Chinese to East- Turkestan (Xinjiang) since 1950’s, repression- and discrimination policies of China in the field of religion, education- language, health, work, economy, ecology and security. Although Turkey and United States show efforts to create awareness of human rights of Uyghurs, they have played only a limited role as a third party. United Nations Security Council on the other hand does not fulfill their responsibility to protect regarding crimes against humanity in Xinjiang.

Uyghur, Right of Self- Determination, People's Republic of China, United Nations, Responsibility to