Beginning of 20th century witnessed important changes in the domains of art and culture due to the interaction between Russia and the western world. Russian artists, who took to the stage on the first quarter of the century, had a global influence with their wide range of cultural and artistic works. A group within these artists, known as the first generation Russian avant-gardes, left Russia after the October Revolution in 1917. Another group had to leave their home country in 1932, as a reaction to the social realism which was imposed by the government as the cultural policy. Few of them, on the other hand, compromised with the ideology by staying quiet and isolated and thus stayed in Russia. Moderation period which is one of the most interesting intervals throughout Russian history of art, took place between 1954 and 1964, under Kruşev’s rule. Moderation was “the second generation avant-gardism” in the art of the soviets and it was also called “the new art” or “art of the underground”. Following the end of moderation period, sociocultural atmosphere of the 60s and the 70s witnessed the victory of party’s bureaucracy, conservative traditions re-gaining its power in the cultural life of the country and increasing of the censorship. This period which was named as “New Stalinism”, was characterized with the deportations or exiles of the many intellectuals, writers, artists, and incidents as such. In this article, there will be special emphasis on the incidents such as Manej (1962), Pogrom - with bulldozers- (1974).
USSR, socio-cultural atmosphere, Russian avant-gardes, Stalinism, non-conformism, moderation, censor