THE CONCEPT OF LEGİTİMACY WİTH REGARD TO THE APPROACHES OF THE MEMBERS OF TURKİSH GRAND NATİONAL ASSEMBLY
MEŞRUİYET KAVRAMI VE BU BAĞLAMDA TÜRKİYE BÜYÜK MİLLET MECLİSİ’NİN ÜYELERİ TARAFINDAN ORTAYA KONULAN YAKLAŞIMLAR

Author : Yaşar ÖZÜÇETİN
Number of pages : 37-49

Abstract

Legitimacy is the state or quality of being legal and denotes the justness of a government or its system of principles. The concept also stipulates a political power based on the consent and assent of people. On this basis, numerous armed resistance movements were organised and several congresses were held accross the country in order to protect the nation and its honour. Anatolian people resisted under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha. Mudafaa-i Hukuk movement and Hey’et-i Temsiliye emerged as a consequence of those efforts to resist and be legitimate against unjust occupations. The Congress became a sort of legislative body and Hey’et-i Temsiliye was transformed into an executive organ. The notions of nation and national were used to denote a community whose members are bound to each other in terms of sharing a common religion, language, history, lineage and fate. These notions of nation and nationality were transformed into a political concept as an inevitable result of Turkish history and culture. This frame of mind united Anatolian people under the umbrellas of freedom and independence. The last Ottoman parliament became inoperative after the occupation of Istanbul on 16 March 1920. Its formal dissolution on 11 April 1920 led to an arbitrary regime not based on constitutionalism and national representatives. The parliament whose members took an oath to realise the National Pact (Mîsak-ı Millî) was terminated and the MPs were exiled to Malta. This circumstance meant that the Turkish people were deprived of a formal institution to represent their will. The Turkish Grand National Assembly became a body in which the raison d'être of political power gained a functional meaning for people, representing the social consensus, based on the public consent and assent. The assembly adopted the principle of separation of powers, specified the bases of the New Turkish State, and conducted the National War of Independence.

Keywords

Mudafaa-i Hukuk Movement, War of Independence, Hey’et-i Temsiliye, TGNA, Legitimacy of TGNA

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