Author : Sevgi DÖNMEZ
Number of pages : 175-188


Being one of the Neo Hittite city states established after the collapse of Hittite Empire in the first half of the 1st millennium B.C., Tabal has been in the field of contention of several powerful states because of its geopolitical location and rich mineral reserves. The borders of Tabal established in the field covering the cities Kayseri, Nevşehir, Niğde, Karaman and Aksaray named Cappadocia was altering frequently. Tabal used rich silver, lead, zinc, iron and copper reserves of Bolkardağı, and because of the technical success they reached in bronze industry, it has been praised for its metal product in the Near East market. The metal art of other cultures reflecting the stylistic features of Tabal metal artifacts is important in the aspect of showing the trade relations of the time. On the north of the Taurus, represented older Luwian elements remaining after the collapse of Hittites, the Kingdom of Tabal was founded in the area south of Kızılırmak reaching the obstacle of the Taurus and named as Lykonia and Cappadocia in the following periods. The Country of Tabal, being seemed as confederation consisting of many kingdoms makes it difficult to determine the borders of the country. The range of the hieroglyph epigraphs forming the starting point for defining the borders has also an important place in terms of possible mineral sources that the Tabal Kingdom used. Besides the rich mineral deposits of Bolkardağı, the Tabal Country should have used the Eastern tin deposits carrying a major importance for Near East markets. The Tabal Country has a rich geography in terms of iron sources. Except the iron deposits of Bolkardağı, since the deposits in the region of Kayseri-Pınarbası and Sivas-Divrig, Gurun and the area of Malatya, iron deposits in the Central Taurus, Southeast Taurus and Amanos Mountain are close to the geographical borders of the Tabal Country, they are possible resources that Tabal might have used. The technical success of the Tabal Country in the art of mine processing is supported by both the archaeological findings in the cultural areas the Tabals affected and written documents. Settlements that took place in the borders of the Tabal Country being founded to the areas which were close to mineral resources and trade routes has an importance in terms of proving that the Kingdom of Tabal carried out the economy of mining with a central organization in a planned way.


Tabal State, Cappadocia, Bolkardağı, Metal Trade, Mineral Resources

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