Author : Burcu YILMAZ ŞAHİN
Number of pages : 455-463


In the economic field, both developed as well as in the developing countries, adopted the economic system and economic policies are applied accordingly increasingly similar. World trade liberalization tends gradually. Being adopted free trade instead of protectionism opinion and understanding of international economic relations are increasing openness of the country. The concept of openness in general, refers to the degree of integration with the global economic power of an economy. Of economic globalization, political and technological factors that influence the speed gained 1980s, the concept of openness literature of economy has become one of the discussion topics to the forefront. Countries are ranked according to the openness and appeared different views on the definition of openness and measurement. Researchers about the criteria used in the calculation of openness between the consensus was not achieved. Openness different criteria were used in the empirical study. Most important problems related to openness can not be observed a variable. One method of measurement openness is obtained openness index measurement method using dummies. Another method that trade shares of export and / or import of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), or ratio. Commercial interests method is the most commonly used method because of the ease of access to data. Since most of the data can be obtained for the country, the comparison can be made between countries. Another method of measurement is to measure the main obstacles to trade, which is based on the effects of openness. Defined the concept of openness in the study and explained the different measurement.


Openness, Openness Criteria, International Trade

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