Press is a very significantsource in historical studies. While utilizingany work of press, political events of that epochand their relations with the power arenotable because it is inevitableto approach with suspiciontoall sorts of information and document. In this way, reliability and value of the information utilized will be verified. The first newspapers published in The Ottoman Empirewere Takvim-i Vekâyiand Ceride-i Havadis.These two newspapers having a critical place in the birth of press and journalist training were financed by the power, and this caused that their publishing policies were determined rather in parallel with the power. By 1860’s, the private press emerged and a new understanding of journalism taking strength from the people was developed. Articles with political content and power oriented criticisms began to appear on press. The officials of the epochspread on effort to prevent thecriticisms by putting new law enforcements or additionalacts. In responseto this attitude of the power, the journalists preferred to go abroad in order to work freely. The provisions again stthepress never worked out completely. For instance, Ali and Fuat Paşalar put a number of prohibitions, they closed down orcencored some newspapers punishingly.During the epoch of Sultan Abdülhamid II, provisions restricting freedom of press were taken. Later on short-term freedom of Mesrutiyet II (ConstitutionalMonarchy II ), punishments started again. During World War II and The Occupation of Istanbul, strict control and cencorship continued. Inresponse to this firmattitude of the power, there were also some journalists standing out and trying to do their duties. For instance, with Tercüman'ı Ahval and Tasvir-i Efkar, there were also bold publications of some journalists like Şinasi, Namık Kemal and Ziya Paşa. Over the last 68 years of The Ottoman Empire, there were press and journalists, some of whom were a menable to the press while the rest of them were not.
Press, Power, Journalist, The Ottoman Empire, Cencorship