Mughals, coming to India as Timurids, is an important Turkish state founded by Babur Shah between the years of 1526-1530. Babur State, which is called as Mughal or Timurids, was the biggest and central state founded by the XVIIth century to that day. The periods of Babur Shah and his son Humayun Shah were difficult since there was the inexperience of a different geography and there was the struggle of dominating many ethnic groups there. Since it was the early periods of the state, not many construction activities were carried out. Unfortunately, many of the few constructions known to have been built at that time have not survived today. During the reign of Akbar Shah, who succeeded to the throne after his father, Humayun Shah, important developments took place especially in architecture. Along with the Akbar Shah period, monumental scale structures began to reveal the general characteristics of Mughal Period architecture under the synthesis of Indian and Islamic architecture as well as Central Asian traditions. Later, during the periods of Mughal rulers Jahangir and Shah Jahan, many works were produced in the field of architecture, and Mughals brought important works to the world heritage in that period. During the reign of Evrengzib, the last ruler of the state, some important works were tried to be produced, albeit on a small scale. However, after this date, Mughals could not regain their former glory and power. The buildings in the garden and surrounding of Humayun Tomb, which is the subject of this research, were built in and after the period of Humayun Shah. They are dated XVIth and XVIIth centuries and consist of mainly tomb and mosque construction groups. In the northwest to the entrance of the garden in which the tomb is located there is Bu Halima’s Tomb and its garden, and in the southwest, there is Isa Khan’s Tomb and Mosque, and later on there is Arab Serai, Afsarvala’s Tomb and Mosque. The garden gate after these buildings opens to the garden with charbagh design in which Humayun’s Tomb is located. In the center of the garden, there is the two-storey tomb of Humayun. In the middle of the north edge of the garden, there is the hammam, in the middle of the east edge there is the pavilion called as Baradari that allowed free flow of air and in the middle of the south edge there is the entrance gate of the garden. There is Barber’s Tomb. Each building in the garden and surrounding of Humayun’s Tomb includes important architectural examples of the early period of Mughals. In this study, information on the architectural characteristics of the above mentioned buildings will be given, and an important part of this matter that has not been studied on in Turkey will be tried to be enlightened.


India, Mughals, Architecture, Humayun’s Tomb Garden, Mosque

Author : Fadime ÖZLER
Number of pages: 203-219
Full text:
The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies
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